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By the early 1930s, the talkies were a global phenomenon.In the United States, they helped secure Hollywood's position as one of the world's most powerful cultural/commercial centers of influence (see Cinema of the United States).Reliable synchronization was difficult to achieve with the early sound-on-disc systems, and amplification and recording quality were also inadequate.Innovations in sound-on-film led to the first commercial screening of short motion pictures using the technology, which took place in 1923.No agreement was reached, but within a year Edison commissioned the development of the Kinetoscope, essentially a "peep-show" system, as a visual complement to his cylinder phonograph.The two devices were brought together as the Kinetophone in 1895, but individual, cabinet viewing of motion pictures was soon to be outmoded by successes in film projection.A major hit, it was made with Vitaphone, which was at the time the leading brand of sound-on-disc technology.
At first, the sound films which included synchronized dialogue, known as "talking pictures", or "talkies", were exclusively shorts.These appear to be the first publicly exhibited films with projection of both image and recorded sound.Phonorama and yet another sound-film system—Théâtroscope—were also presented at the Exposition.In India, sound was the transformative element that led to the rapid expansion of the nation's film industry.
The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as the concept of cinema itself.
Three major problems persisted, leading to motion pictures and sound recording largely taking separate paths for a generation.